[31], More recently the environmental movement's embrace of urban density has offered an "implicit critique" of the garden city movement. The Garden City movement was even able to take root in South Africa, with the development of the suburbs of Pinelands and Edgemead in Cape Town as well as Durbanville near Cape Town. Letchworth Garden City is home to one of the UK's largest colonies of black squirrels, thought by some to be a genetic mutation of the common North American Grey squirrel, but in fact a rare but not unique example of Melanism. He quotes a number of respected thinkers and their disdain of cities. share. In Peru, there is a long tradition in urban design[a] that has been reintroduced in its architecture more recently. [34] The campaign continued in 2013 with the publication in March of that year of "Creating Garden Cities and Suburbs Today - a guide for councils". The subdivisions were based on the principles of the garden city as promoted by Ebenezer Howard, including ample parks and other open spaces, park islands in the middle of “grand avenues”, such as Avenida Amsterdam in colonia Hipódromo. Garden City & Native Country Style (1900 - 1940) With the "garden city" movement, wall gardens experienced a boom-- beautiful green trellises and food self-sufficiency through the cultivation of espalier fruit being the main pillars of this new greening movement. During his lifetime Letchworth, Brentham Garden Suburb and Welwyn Garden City were built in or near London according to Howard’s concept and many other garden cities inspired by his model have since been built all over the world. The declaration has a strong focus on the visible (architecture and layout) and the invisible (social, ownership and governance) architecture of a settlement. [7] Because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, and hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans. The greenbelt towns not only provided work and affordable housing, but also served as a laboratory for experiments in innovative urban planning. Howard was knighted in 1927. • The concentric ring roads – Harare drive, Glenara • Tree lined streets- Julius Nyerere • The permanent girdle of … The historic Townsite of Powell River, British Columbia[19] and the Hydrostone district of Halifax, Nova Scotia are recognized as National Historic Sites of Canada[20] built upon the Garden City Movement. Thanks to such strongly conservative local residents’ associations as the Civic Society, both Hampstead and Gidea Park retain much of their original character. [6] Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two million members, but could not win their financial support. In Bhutan's capital city Thimphu the new plan, following the Principles of Intelligent Urbanism, is an organic response to the fragile ecology. [33], When interviewed in 1998, the architect responsible for introducing the design to public housing in New South Wales, Philip Cox, was reported to have admitted with regards to an American Radburn designed estate in the suburb of Villawood, "everything that could go wrong in a society went wrong," and "it became the centre of drugs, it became the centre of violence and, eventually, the police refused to go into it. One of the first planned settlements in Canada, designed along Garden City lines, around a main local industry, Spruce Falls paper mill, who have printed The New York Times since 1928. Ciudad Jardín Lomas del Palomar, declared by the influential Argentinian professor of engineering, Carlos María della Paolera, founder of "Día Mundial del Urbanismo" (World Urbanism … ), Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Here garden city principles are a fundamental part of the Trust’s activity. Two garden cities were built using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the county of Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. International Precursors: Garden Cities. Both resulted in some good examples of domestic architecture, by such architects as Wells Coates and Berthold Lubetkin. [23][24] Lalor:Peter Lalor Home Building Cooperative 1946-2012 Scollay, Moira. Plant lots of grasses and shrubs … Pre-dating these was the garden suburb of Haberfield in 1901 by Richard Stanton, organised on a vertical integrated model from land subdivision, mortgage financing, house and interior designs and site landscaping.[25]. ), The concept of garden cities is to produce relatively economically independent cities with short commute times and the preservation of the countryside. Garden City principles greatly influenced the design of colonial and post-colonial capitals during the early part of the 20th century. The Garden City Model introduced the application of some basic planning rules which are still in usage today. The garden city model was also applied to many colonial hill stations, such as Da Lat in Vietnam (est. [4] He founded the Garden City Association (later known as the Town and Country Planning Association or TCPA), which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth. [51] They were built on the outskirts of cities, in rural settings. [27], Singapore, a tropical city has over time incorporated various facets of the Garden City concept in its town plans to try and make the country a unique City in a Garden. [citation needed], In 2007, the Town and Country Planning Association marked its 108th anniversary by calling for Garden City and Garden Suburb principles to be applied to the present New Towns and Eco-towns in the United Kingdom. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom and aims to capture the primary benefits of a countryside environment and a city environment while avoiding the disadvantages presented by both. It was subsequently designated as a New Town under the 1946 New Towns Act. The Gidea Park estate in particular was built during two main periods of activity, 1911 and 1934. From Cambridge English Corpus The small suburb, conveniently located on a transport crossroad, turned into an urban centre of finance, commerce and manufacturing, gradually forsaking its 'garden city' characteristics. [citation needed], In 2014 The Letchworth Declaration[36] was published which called for a body to accredit future garden cities in the UK. Graphic Violence ; Graphic Sexual Content ; texts. [1], Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty, Howard published the book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898 (which was reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow). We found 15 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word garden city: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "garden city" is defined. A garden city called Letchworth was developed about 30 miles north of London in Hertfordshire, Eng. Planned by Walter Burley Griffin and his partner and wife Marion Mahony Griffin (who won a competition). Major innovations that defined early garden suburbs and subsequent suburban town planning include linking villa-like homes with landscaped public spaces and roads. 1912), Wyvernwood Garden Apartments, Los Angeles, California (1939). However it is under threat from developers and Whittlesea Council. Chengdu, for example, is being vaunted as a new garden city, with plans to protect a greenbelt and develop regional “satellite cities” with connecting corridors. Argentina. Using sustainable concepts, it is a contemporary response to the garden city concept. ], British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced plans for a new garden city to be built at Ebbsfleet Valley, Kent, in early 2014, with a second also planned as an expansion of Bicester, Oxfordshire. The Garden City Movement was invented by Sir Ebenezer Howard ( 1850-1928 ) ( Couch, 2014 ) . THE GARDEN CITY by EBENEZER HOWARD THEORY OF URBAN PLANNING ARCHY BHATT 2. Howard's successor as chairman of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn, who extended the movement to regional planning.[17]. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. The Garden City Movement was invented by Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) (Couch, 2014). Changes were inevitable.[26]. Garden suburbs are built on the outskirts of large cities with no sections of industry. [35] Also in 2013, Lord Simon Wolfson announced that he would award the Wolfson Economics Prize for the best ideas on how to create a new garden city. In Italy, the INA-Casa plan - a national public housing plan from the 1950s and '60s - designed several suburbs according to Garden City principles: examples are found in many cities and towns of the country, such as the Isolotto suburb in Florence, Falchera in Turin, Harar in Milan, Cesate Villaggio in Cesate (part of the Metropolitan City of Milan), etc. Diagram No.1 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow. His idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 9,000 acres (3642 ha), planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre. ), Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. [2], Howard's To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition, Garden Cities of To-morrow. "Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907. The world’s second Garden City was founded by Ebenezer Howard in 1920 and designed by Louis De Soissons. ), Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow. [49] The book strongly influenced the Housing and Town Planning Act of 1909, which provided municipalities the power to develop urban plans for new suburban communities.[50]. [48], Raymond Unwin, one of Howard’s early collaborators on the Letchworth Garden City project in 1907, became very influential in formalizing the garden city principles in the design of suburbs through his work Town Planning in Practice: An Introduction to the Art of Designing Cities and Suburbs (1909). The first garden villages were built by English estate owners, who wanted to relocate or rebuild villages on their lands. Another good example is Denmark, which is a world leader in using environmentally clean energy. [12] Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not immediately inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities. 1929). As seen in his book, the garden city concept outlined a utopian vision of a self-sustaining town that would combine town conveniences and industries with the advantages of an agricultural location. The Epcot Center in Bay Lake, Florida took some influence from Howard's Garden City concept while the park was still under construction. The localities in following lists have been developed directly as Garden Cities or their development has been heavily influenced by the Garden City movement. Garden Cities of Tomorrow by Ebenezer Howard. Garden City Principles have influenced development all over the world, with large scale examples on every continent, such as Canberra, New Delhi and New Deal towns in the USA; and smaller settlements and suburbs in South Africa, France, Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Brazil, Canada and Japan. The concept was adopted again in the UK after World War II, when the New Towns Act spurred the development of many new communities based on Howard's egalitarian ideas. Greenbelts and urban greenspaces have been redesigned to incorporate more living spaces. The garden city was seen as a mean to fuse the best quality of both the country and the city. [45], Despite the emergence of the garden suburb in England, the typology flowered in the second half of the 19th century in United States. Tapiola was built by the private non-profit organisation the Asuntosaatio (the Housing Foundation), which was formed in 1951 under the leadership of Heikki von Hertzen, a garden city advocate. [43] Lewis Mumford, one of Howard’s disciples, explained the difference as "The Garden City, as Howard defined it, is not a suburb but the antithesis of a suburb: not a rural retreat, but a more integrated foundation for an effective urban life. However, the movement did succeed in emphasizing the need for urban planning policies that eventually led to the New Town movement. One result was the creation of the New Garden Cities Alliance as a community interest company. ), Diagram No.7 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.). The Peter Lalor Estate in Lalor takes its name from a leader of the Eureka Stockade and remains today in its original form. On 2 January 2017, plans for new garden villages, each with between 1,500 and 10,000 homes, and garden towns each with more than 10,000 houses were announced by the government. [46], Garden suburbs were not part of Howard’s plan[47] and were actually a hindrance to garden city planning—they were in fact almost the antithesis of Howard’s plan, what he tried to prevent. [9] Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard's large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town, and they shared Howard's notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing. Photograph: Jason Hawkes/Corbis. The rebuild blueprint rethought the garden city concept and how it would best suit the city. It was first described in his book Garden Cities of To-morrow, published in 1902 (Ebenezer Howard, 2014).The Garden City Model introduced the application of some basic planning principles which are still in use today. Its aim is to be complementary to groups like the Town and Country Planning Association and it has adopted TCPA garden city principles as well as those from other groups, including those from Cabannes and Ross's booklet 21st Century Garden Cities of To-morrow. There are very tight restrictions applying to the properties here, no stonewall cladding, uPVC windows, and so on. [54] In 1887 the workers of the Anchor Shoe Company in Humberstone formed a workers' cooperative and built 97 houses. While garden cities were praised for being an alternative to overcrowded and industrial cities, along with greater sustainability, garden cities were often criticized for damaging the economy, being destructive of the beauty of nature, and being inconvenient. American architects and partners, Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin[55] were proponents of the movement and after their arrival in Australia to design the national capital Canberra, they produced a number of garden suburb estates, most notably at Eaglemont with the Glenard[56] and Mount Eagle Estates[57] and the Ranelagh and Milleara Estates in Victoria. For other uses, see, "Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907, United States Resettlement Administration, Soviet urban planning ideologies of the 1920s, "A Further Criticism of the Garden City Movement", "Demolition ordered for Rosemeadow estate", "Creating Garden Cities and Suburbs Today - a guide for councils", "Ebbsfleet: Britain's first new garden city", "Bicester chosen as new garden city with 13,000 homes", "New garden towns to create thousands of new homes", "Black Country Garden City to get 45,000 new homes", "Suburban Ideals on England's Interwar Council Estates", Sir Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement. This success provided him the support necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. The sound of flowing water is not only relaxing the senses, stunned successful road noise. Available in English and French. Created by Karl Shmidt, owner of furniture company Deutshe Werkstätten für Handwerkskunst (German Workshop for Handcrafted art). Dresden, Germany. The suburbanisation of London was an increasing problem which Howard attempted to solve with his garden city model, which attempted to end urban sprawl by the sheer inhibition of land speculation due to the land being held in trust, and the inclusion of agricultural areas on the city outskirts. It was in these cases that architects first began designing small houses. In 1966, the 'Residencial San Felipe' in Lima's district of Jesus Maria was built using the Garden City concept.[21]. Geddes started his Tel Aviv plan in 1925 and submitted the final version in 1927, so all growth of this garden city during the 1930s was merely "based" on the Geddes Plan. Some notable examples being, in London, Hampstead Garden Suburb, the Sutton Garden Suburb in Benhilton, Sutton, Pinner's Pinnerwood conversation area and the 'Exhibition Estate' in Gidea Park and, in Liverpool, Wavertree Garden Suburb. In 1996, the National Parks Board was given the mandate to spearhead the development and maintenance of greenery and bring the island's green spaces and parks to the community.[29]. The Garden City movement also influenced the Scottish urbanist Sir Patrick Geddes in the planning of Tel Aviv, Israel, in the 1920s, during the British Mandate for Palestine. Early examples include Harewood and Milton Abbas. They are therefore dependent on reliable transport allowing workers to commute into the city. The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The garden villages are spatially independent of the city but remain connected to the city by railroads, streetcars, and later automobiles. The villages often included shops and civic buildings. Diagram No.1 ("Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907. [8], In 1904, Raymond Unwin, a noted architect and town planner, and his partner Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth, an area 34 miles outside London. In 1898, a self-educated Englishman named Ebenezer Howard, who had been influenced by the writings of Edward Bellamy and Henry George, published Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.. Revised and re-issued in 1902 under a new title, Garden Cities of To-Morrow, Howard’s book became a seminal text in the emerging field of city planning. Den-en-Chofu was Japan’s first Garden Suburb, developed on the outskirts of Tokyo in the 1920s to provide housing for rail commuters.. Poland’s signature Garden Suburb, Podkowa Lesna (literally ‘Horseshoe Grove’) was built in the 1920s following the arrival of the electric commuter railway from the outskirts of Warsaw to the city centre. There were generally two garden suburb typologies, the garden village and the garden enclave. It’s interesting that you were looking at examples of Garden City experiments in Germany, as I discovered later during my own research for my term paper that Gottfried Feder, an early member of the Nazi Party, and the man largely responsible for drawing Hitler to the party, had actually published Die Neue Stadt in 1939, which was his attempt at a Nazi Garden City. No_Favorite. The urban form of the enclaves was often coordinated through the use of early land use controls typical of modern zoning, including controlled setbacks, landscaping, and materials. [37][self-published source? It succeeded according to the guidelines that he had laid down, and in 1920 a second, Welwyn Garden City, was established nearby. Two garden cities were built using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the county of Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. "[33], Contemporary town-planning charters like New Urbanism and Principles of Intelligent Urbanism originated with this movement. Greendale, Wisconsin is one of three "greenbelt" towns planned beginning in 1935 under the direction of Rexford Guy Tugwell, head of the United States Resettlement Administration, under authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act. In the former Czechoslovakia, all industrial cities founded or reconstructed by the Bata Shoes company (Zlín, Svit, Partizánske) were at least influenced by the conception of the Garden City. the Garden City was a present Space full of plants and trees where people would both live and work . Social housing associations were created, often linked to political movements. The populations comprised mostly skilled middle class workers. The idea of the garden city was influential in other countries, including the United States. [14] The purchase was at auction, with money Howard desperately and successfully borrowed from friends. flag. Prior to the earthquakes of 2010 and 2011, the city infrastructure and homes were well integrated into green spaces. ), Diagram No.6 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Garden city 1. Building upon Howard’s ideas, one of the most important new philosophies in suburban design is the concept of New Urbanism. [22] So too the town of Sunshine which is now a suburb of Melbourne in Victoria and the suburb of Lalor, also in Melbourne. Garden Cities of Tomorrow Item Preview remove-circle ... Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! ), Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.). Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. General (14 matching dictionaries) Garden City, garden city: Merriam-Webster.com [home, info] Garden City, garden city… A fascinating web of connections emerges linking the early garden city movement and radical politics in the 1900s. One of the first implementations of Garden cities in the former department of the Seine was that of Drancy. This important residential development was associated with the growth of ‘Cadbury’s Factory in a Garden’. The Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction. AustraliaPlanned by Walter Burley Griffin and his partner and wife Marion Mahony Griffin (who won a competition). In reference to the lack of government support for garden cities, Frederic James Osborn, a colleague of Howard and his eventual successor at the Garden City Association, recalled him saying, "The only way to get anything done is to do it yourself. Examples include Residence Park in New Rochelle, New York; Woodbourne in Boston; Newport News, Virginia's Hilton Village; Pittsburgh's Chatham Village; Garden City, New York (parenthetically, the name "Garden City," as it applied to the Stewart-designed city on Long Island, incorporated in 1869, pre-dates that of the garden city movement, which was established some years later near the end of the nineteenth century); Sunnyside, Queens; Jackson Heights, Queens; Forest Hills Gardens, also in the borough of Queens, New York; Radburn, New Jersey; Greenbelt, Maryland; Buckingham in Arlington County, Virginia; the Lake Vista neighborhood in New Orleans; Norris, Tennessee; Baldwin Hills Village in Los Angeles; and the Cleveland suburbs of Parma[18] and Shaker Heights. According to A. Trystan Edwards, garden cities lead to desecration of the country side by trying to recreate country side houses that could spread themselves; however, this was not a possible feat due to the limited space they had. Cité-jardin du Tricentenaire (Tricentennial Garden-City) Montreal, Quebec (1940–1947), Peter Lalor Housing Estate, Lalor, Victoria, Australia, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 22:29. This article is about a method of urban planning. In contrast, garden enclaves are typically strictly residential and emphasize natural and private space, instead of public and community space. It was first described in his book Garden Cities of To-morrow, published in 1902 ( Ebenezer Howard, 2014 ) . Ile-de-France, Seine-Saint-Denis, Paris, France. 10% DISCOUNT for all military personnel. He decided to get funding from "gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and honour". The plans reflected the two main strands of planning popular in the early 1900’s, the immutability of the City Beautiful movement and capturing the landscape and social engineering of the Garden City movement.Specific reference to the Garden City principles could 9 Architectural Icons of Communist Poland. 1907) and Ifrane in Morocco (est. he believed not only word advisor the difference between city and countryside and the solve the housing problem of the poor but would also producer better quality of citizens . At Sting and Trudie Styler’s home in Tuscany, an ancient cedar of Lebanon overlooks the parterre, … Diagram No.1: The Three Magnets (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. [52] Many of Howard’s intentions were realised in two garden cities: Letchworth Garden City, built from 1903, and Welwyn Garden City, built from 1920. Milton Keynes, built after the second world war, is an example of a garden city. [16], Howard organised the Garden City Association in 1899. In São Paulo, Brazil, several neighbourhoods were planned as Garden Cities, such as Jardim América, Jardim Europa, Alto da Lapa, Alto de Pinheiros, Jardim da Saúde and Cidade Jardim (Garden City in Portuguese). Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow. Garden suburbs arguably do the opposite. ), Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow. In Brussels, Antwerp and Ghent new extensions of the city were built. Nature Meets Culture: Poland’s Garden Cities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Garden_city_movement&oldid=999186281, Political movements in the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with self-published sources from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Castle Park, Ashbourne, Co. Meath, Ireland, Park Circle, North Charleston, South Carolina (ca. In Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens in Adelaide, South Australia, was designed according to Garden City principles. Howard believed that all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The settlements built in Jena, Weimar, Leipzig, and elsewhere still show trellises from this period. Howard's garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or in ‘crowded, unhealthy cities’. [40] A "Black Country Garden City" was announced in 2016 with plans to build 45,000 new homes in the West Midlands on brownfield sites.[41]. "[13] Likely in frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second garden city in 1919. Letchworth slowly attracted more residents because it brought in manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space. Britain’s housing crisis: are garden cities the answer? [32] In this way the critique of the concept resembles critiques of other suburbanization models, though author Stephen Ward has argued that critics often do not adequately distinguish between true garden cities and more mundane dormitory city plans. Published on Wed 6 Aug 2014 09.40 EDT. Greendale's plan was designed between 1936 and 1937 by a staff headed by Joseph Crane, Elbert Peets, Harry Bentley, and Walter C. Thomas for a site that had formerly consisted of 3,400 acres (14 km2) of farmland. Planned by Walter Burley Griffin and his partner and wife Marion Mahony Griffin (who won a competition). Today there are many garden cities in the world, but most of them have devolved to dormitory suburbs, which completely differ from what Howard aimed to create. ), Diagram No.5 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Global Garden Cities. ), Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Australia. The two other greenbelt towns are Greenbelt, Maryland (near Washington, D.C.) and Greenhills, Ohio (near Cincinnati). First gartenstadt in Germany, located four miles from Dresden and connected to it by tram. Two garden cities were built using Howard’s garden city movement concept are Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in Hertfordshire, England. In Canada, the Ontario towns of Don Mills (now incorporated into the City of Toronto) and Walkerville (now incorporated into the City of Windsor) are, in part, garden cities, as well as the Montreal suburb of Mount Royal. However, few people know that the garden city Żyrardów has its origins in the concept of E. Howard. Established in 1917 Jardim América is perhaps the most famous garden city inspired example in Brazil and was designed by Barry Parker in a suburb of São Paulo. [32], It is often referred to as an urban design experiment which is typified by failure due to the laneways used as common entries and exits to the houses helping ghettoise communities and encourage crime; it has ultimately lead to efforts to 'de-Radburn' or partially demolish American Radburn designed public housing areas. The Barcelona City Council is also developing an information and modeling system as an integrated tool to support decisions regarding sustainable urban environment. 0 0 Epilepsy … Garden cities examples as a result of garden city movement. [15], Even until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only existing garden cities in the United Kingdom. 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